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C — Data Type

Basic Data Types

There are four basic data types in C.

Char

char is the smallest data type by size in C. It is defined to be 8 bits or 1 byte long. It is basically just an integer but with small range and is meant to store any member of character set. But as it just holds an integer value, normal arithematic operators can be used with it.

signed char has a range from -128 to 127 (two’s complement), whereas, unsigned char has a range from 0 to 255 (2n).

Int

int is the standard integer data type in C. Its size is implementation dependent and the original defination requires it to be at least 16 bits long, though, special qualifiers, that are later discussed, can be used to increase or decrease the size of an int.

Float

float is the floating point data type in C. Its size is also implementation dependent and the original defination requires it to be at least 16 bits long. It has no unsigned equivalent. For extra precision, see double.

Double

double is the extra precision floating point in C. It is meant to store floating point with double the precision of float data type, but depending on implementation, they both can be one and the same.

Ranges for all the data types based on implementation is defined as macros in <limits.h> header file. For more information, see man limits.h.

Qualifiers

There are few qualifiers that can be applied to basic data types.
Note: Not all qualifiers apply to all basic data types.

short and long are meant to provide different lengths of int. short is generally 16 bits long whereas long is 32 bits long. For double, short qualifier is not applicable.

signed and unsigned is a different story. Variables when declared are generally signed, except in the case of char which is implementation dependant. signed means it can store both negative and positive values. This means that range is evenly distributed between negative and positive halves and thus reducing largest number possible to store. unsigned on the contrary, can only store non-negative (positive and zero) numbers. Thus, an extra bit can be used to store value, which means it can store numbers larger then those in signed.

See Also